lunes, 21 de noviembre de 2011

Fuentes del Derecho Chino

Sources of law in Hong Kong
Information based on the Departmental publication "Legal System in Hong Kong" printed in 2008
National Law
Several national laws of the People's Republic of China apply in Hong Kong by virtue of Article 18 of the Basic Law. Under Article 158 of the Basic Law, an interpretation of a provision of the Basic Law by the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress is to be followed by the courts of Hong Kong in applying the relevant provision.
The Basic Law
Nature of the Basic Law
TheLink will open in new windowBasic Law of the HKSAR was enacted by the National People's Congress in accordance with the Constitution of the People's Republic of China. It is akin to a mini-constitution for the HKSAR. It was promulgated on 4 April 1990 and took effect on 1 July 1997 on the establishment of the HKSAR. All the systems and policies practised in the HKSAR must be based on the provisions of the Basic Law. These include the social and economic systems; the system for safeguarding the fundamental rights and freedoms of its residents; the executive, legislative and judicial systems; and the relevant policies. Furthermore, no law enacted by the legislature of the HKSAR may contravene the Basic Law.
The most prominent feature of the Basic Law is the underlying principle of "one country, two systems" whereby the socialist system and policies shall not be practised in the HKSAR, and the previous capitalist system and way of life is to remain unchanged for 50 years.
Under the Basic Law, all the laws previously in force in Hong Kong (that is, the common law, rules of equity, ordinances, subordinate legislation and customary law) shall be maintained, except for any that contravene the Basic Law and subject to any amendment by the HKSAR legislature. National laws of the People's Republic of China shall not be applied in the HKSAR except for a number of such laws relating to defence and foreign affairs which are listed in Annex III to the Basic Law.
Relationship between the Central Authorities and the HKSAR
The National People's Congress through the Basic Law authorises the HKSAR to exercise a high degree of autonomy directly under the Central People's Government. The HKSAR enjoys executive, legislative and independent judicial power, including that of final adjudication, in accordance with provisions of the Basic Law. Although foreign affairs relating to the HKSAR are the responsibility of the Central People's Government, the HKSAR is authorised to conduct relevant external affairs on its own in accordance with the Basic Law. The Central People's Government is also responsible for the defence of the HKSAR, but the responsibility of maintaining public order in the HKSAR is a matter for its government.
Fundamental rights protected by the Basic Law
The Basic Law details the fundamental rights, freedoms and duties of the residents of the HKSAR. These rights include the right to equality before the law; freedom of speech, of the press and of publication; freedom of association, of assembly, of procession and of demonstration; and the right and freedom to form and join trade unions, and to strike; freedom of movement; freedom of conscience; and freedom of religious belief. The Basic Law also guarantees that the provisions of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights; of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights; and of the International Labour Conventions as applied to Hong Kong will remain in force.
The political structure of the HKSAR
TheLink will open in new windowChief Executive is the head of the HKSAR and is accountable to the Central People's Government and the HKSAR. He is assisted in policy making by theLink will open in new windowExecutive Council of the HKSAR. The Chief Executive presides over the Executive Council and appoints its members.
The main powers and functions of the Government of the HKSAR (which is headed by the Chief Executive) include the formulation and implementation of policies, the conduct of administrative affairs and the drawing up and introduction of budgets and legislation.
The HKSAR's legislature is theLink will open in new windowLegislative Council, and the Basic Law prescribes the specific method for forming the Legislative Council and its procedures for voting on bills and motions. Under the Basic Law the Legislative Council's functions include the making of laws, approving budgets and public expenditure and monitoring the work of the government in general.
The common law and the rules of equity
Common law and the rules of equity are to be found primarily in the judgments of the superior courts in Hong Kong and other common law jurisdictions. In historical terms, reports of judgments handed down by judges have, since at least the 15th century, established in detail the legal principles regulating the relationship between state and citizen, and between citizen and citizen. There are now some hundreds of thousands of reported cases in common law jurisdictions which comprise the common law. The rights relating to freedom of speech, freedom of assembly, and freedom from arbitrary arrest or imprisonment have been spelt out in cases which were decided more than three centuries ago. As we have seen, these have now been underpinned by provisions in the Basic Law.
The common law's most distinguishing hallmark is reliance on a system of case precedent, not restricted to judicial decisions generated within any single jurisdiction, but case law from all jurisdictions throughout the common law world. Article 84 of the Basic Law provides that the courts of the HKSAR may refer to the precedents of other common law jurisdictions. In addition, the Court of Final Appeal and theLink will open in new windowJudiciary of the HKSAR is given power to invite judges from other common law jurisdictions to participate in the judicial processes.
Statute law enacted in Hong Kong
The vast majority of statute law in force in Hong Kong is made locally and contained in the Laws of Hong Kong. A great deal of legislation is made under delegated powers. This is called subsidiary legislation. For example, an ordinance may delegate to the Chief Executive in Council (the Chief Executive with the advice of the Executive Council) the power to make regulations to deal with the details of the implementation of a legislative scheme.
Chinese customary law
Some aspects of Chinese customary law apply in Hong Kong. For example, under section 13 of the New Territories Ordinance (Cap 97) the courts may recognise and enforce Chinese customs or customary rights in relation to land in the New Territories; and Chinese law and custom is recognised in the Legitimacy Ordinance (Cap 184).
International law
Over 200 international treaties and agreements have been applied to Hong Kong. A treaty does not constitute part of Hong Kong's domestic law until given effect by legislation. Nonetheless, it may affect the development of the common law. It may, for example, be resorted to by a court as an aid to interpretation. The rapidly developing rules of customary international law can also become absorbed into the common law.

1 comentario:

  1. Su fuente principal es la ley, lo cuál es muy predecible, ya que los chinos son muy estrictos en su forma de ser, por lo tanto se puede entender la convicción que tiene por mantener ese apego a la ley.